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One month before admission and 6 years after her last aspiration and injection procedure order malegra fxt plus 160mg fast delivery,she began coughing up blood 160 mg malegra fxt plus. Her coughing then became productive of gelatinous purchase 160mg malegra fxt plus free shipping,foul-smelling serosanguinous uid. Pulmonary exam revealed decreased breath sounds and dullness to percussion at the right base. A computed tomography scan with both breath sounds and E-to-A changes were noted in the oral and intravenous contrast shows multiple echinococ- right posterior mid-lung eld. Humans represent an inadvertent intermediate host, the infection being contracted by ingestion of food contaminated with viable parasite eggs. In the southwestern United States, most cases are the infection being detected incidentally on an imag- contracted from sheep dogs. Symptoms generally develop when the Echinococcus multilocularis is the fox, and domestic cats hydatid cyst reaches a size of 8 to 10 cm and begins and dogs become secondarily infected. Because eggs are compressing vital structures or eroding into the biliary partially resistant to drying and can remain viable for tract or a pulmonary bronchus (as occurred in case many weeks, food can become contaminated without 12. The cysts can also become superinfected, result- coming in direct contact with infected animals. Cyst leakage or rupture can Ingested eggs hatch in the intestine, forming result in an anaphylactic reaction, causing fever and oncospheres that penetrate the bowel wall, enter the hypotension. Asymptomatic disease commonly the liver and lungs, and less frequently the caused by Echinococcus granulosus rarely progresses; brain, heart, and bones where they encyst. The resulting however, 90% of cases of asymptomatic Echinococcus hydatid cysts consist of a germinal membrane that pro- multilocularis infection eventually progress to sympto- duces multiple tapeworm heads and that also undergoes matic disease. To reduce the risk of spread, aspiration of the cyst is recommended a procedure that involves removing a fraction of the contents and instilling a hypertonic Causes neurologic complications in a signicant saline solution (30% NaCl), iodophore, or 95% ethanol number of infected patients many years after the to kill the germinal layer and daughter cysts. In cases with biliary communica- tion, the foregoing cidal agents are not recommended because of the risk of inducing sclerosing cholangitis. Like Echinococcus, Taenia can be contracted by period is generally recommended to limit the risk of ingesting viable eggs or by eating raw or undercooked intraoperative dissemination. Once ingested, the is recommended for patients with inoperable hydatid eggs hatch or the encysted larvae are released into the cyst (see Table 12. Cysts may lodge in the cerebral ventricles (causing hydrocephalus), the spinal cord About Echinococcus (resulting in cord compression and paraplegia), the subarachnoid space (causing chronic meningitis), or 1. Spread primarily by domestic dogs,who excrete the cerebral cortex (causing seizures). Eggs survive in dust and remain asymptomatic for many years, becoming clin- contaminate food. Eggs hatch in the intestine and oncospheres associated with cyst swelling and increased inamma- enter the bloodstream, where they migrate to tion. Larvae also encyst in other tissues (skin and mus- the liver or lung,or (less commonly) to the brain, cle), but rarely cause symptoms. Hydatid cysts survive and grow over decades, causing symptoms when they reach 8 to 10 cm Diagnosis and Treatment in diameter. Diagnosis is made by computed tomography Computed tomography or nuclear magnetic resonance scan or ultrasonography. Treatment involves administration of albenda- ing discrete cysts that may enhance following the zole, combined with surgical resection pre- administration of contrast media depending on ceded by instillation of an agent cidal to the the degree of surrounding inflammation. Alternatively, percutaneous nee- infection, multiple lesions are generally detected. A recent randomized trial and a meta-analysis suggested that in symptomatic patients with cortical lesions, albendazole combined with oral dexamethasone (2 mg three times daily) or oral prednisone (40 mg daily) enhances resolu- tion of the lesions and reduces the incidence of seizures. Surgical resection of cysts may be required depending on the symptoms and on size and location of the offend- ing cyst. In late disease,how does egg deposition cause clini- reveals lymphocytes or eosinophils accompanied by cal symptoms? Serologic tests detecting antibody directed against Taenia solium may be positive, particularly in patients with multiple cysts. Albendazole and praziquantel may kill living Usually a chronic disorder resulting in debilitating complications. Contracted by ingesting eggs in fecally contam- inated food or encysted larvae in undercooked pork. Symptoms develop after many years when the are estimated to infect between 200 and 300 million peo- larvae die, causing increased inammation. Can cause seizures, hydrocephalus, paraplegia, United States because the critical intermediate host a and meningitis. Diagnosis is made by computed tomography approximately 400,000 imported cases occur in immi- scan, magnetic resonance imaging, or serology. Treatment involves administration of albenda- Brazil), the Middle East, and the Philippines. The parasite is contracted by exposure to fresh water A 32-year-old man was evaluated for a lesion of the containing infectious cercariae. He had been well until 16 months are able to swim to and penetrate the skin of people earlier. Soon after returning from a 1-week vacation wading in stagnant infested freshwater pools or rice pad- dies. Once inside the host, cercariae lose their tails and in Malawi, he had an episode of perineal pain asso- mature into schistosomulae that enter the bloodstream. His condition improved after treatment where over a period of 6 weeks, they mature to adult with ciprooxacin. The adult worms then migrate through the Four months before the evaluation, this patient venous plexus to various sites, depending on the Schis- had begun experiencing urinary frequency, with tosoma strain. An epidemiologic history rior mesenteric veins that drain the small intestine, and noted frequent travel outside the United States. While there, he had repeatedly swum in a Once resident in the host, the worms can live for lake that he was assured was safe. Cytology found no malignant water, forming miracidia whose cilia enable them to cells. Each species of schis- round structure, 8 10 mm in diameter, adherent to tosome requires a specic freshwater snail intermediate, the bladder wall. Cystoscopic examination disclosed which explains the geographic distribution of each multiple, slightly raised, polypoid lesions that were strain. The lesions were erythe- within 4 to 6 weeks, they release large numbers of cer- cariae capable of infecting humans. At higher magnification, the granulomas were found to contain clusters of helminthic eggs surrounded by epithelioid histio- About the Life Cycle of Schistosoma cytes, chronic inflammatory cells, and eosinophils. Both were treated with enter the bloodstream and migrate to the liver praziquantel, and the eggs disappeared from both and lung, where they mature. The worms release eggs into stool or urine for many years, resulting in contamination of fresh Clinical Presentation water. Freshwater snails are infected by miracidia, a cycle of the parasite in the human host. Diagnosis and Treatment Au: used with Demonstration of eggs in the stool or urine allows a spe- permission? Quantitative egg counts are Au: Is the cita- helpful in assessing the intensity of the infection. Eggs may Med 343:1105-1111, 2000) the given data, also be identied on tissue biopsies. In names and arti- chronic disease, the egg burden may be low, making the cle title) bloodstream. An avian schistosome is also able to penetrate the skin, but it is not capable of entering the diagnosis difcult. This benign form of swimmer s itch is now available for detecting chronically infected patients; common in the Great Lakes of the north-central United however, the specicity and sensitivity of these tests limit States and in freshwater lakes in Europe. Furthermore, the tests cannot be used in life- The second stage of clinical disease occurs 4 to long residents of endemic areas, because serology in these 8 weeks later, when the worms mature and begin releas- ing eggs. Patients develop a serum-sickness-like syndrome as they react with elevated levels of immunoglobulin E and peripheral eosinophilia to egg antigens. This clinical About the Clinical Presentation of constellation has been called Katayama fever and is Schistosomiasis most commonly associated with S. The symptoms usually resolve spontaneously, but in heavy infections, this acute reaction can be fatal. A serum-sickness syndrome with eosinophilia reactions to egg deposition in the intestine, liver, and high immunoglobulin E levels mayfollow. Peripheral eosinophilia is commonly hematuria, bladder obstruction, hydronephro- encountered. What is the key characteristic that helps to differen- Other ukes that can infect humans undergo a life cycle tiate inammatory lariasis from bacterial cellulitis? When during the day are blood smears most likely Infection is contracted when the human host eats cer- to be positive? Clonorchis sinensis (Chinese liver uke) infections result from the ingestion of raw or undercooked freshwater sh. Infections are effectively A chronic debilitating infection that can cause treated with praziquantel. Ingestion of vegetables contaminated with encysted cercariae is the most com- mon route of infection. Paragonimus westermani (lung uke) is contracted by Prevalence, Epidemiology, and Life Cycle eating raw or pickled crawsh or freshwater crabs. This Microlaria is less common than many parasites, being parasite is found in Central and South America, West estimated to infect approximately 120 million people. Wuchere- gastrointestinal tract and subsequently penetrates ria bancrofti is found throughout the tropics, and Bru- through the diaphragm, entering the pleural cavity and gia malayi is restricted to the southern regions of Asia. Larvae pass from the skin into the lymphatic sys- tem, where, over several months, they mature near the lymph nodes.
Manual rupture of ovarian cysts also presents risk of trauma to the uterine tubes purchase malegra fxt plus 160 mg on line. Palpation is most likely to detect adhesions or en- largement of the uterine tubes and is unlikely to iden- tify subtle changes buy malegra fxt plus 160 mg cheap. Palpation of the uterine tubes can best be performed by inserting one s ngers into the ovarian bursa generic malegra fxt plus 160mg overnight delivery. If the ngers are spread apart within the bursa, the uterine tube comes to lie along the ngertips. Although the normal uterine tube can not be identied, swelling or nodules indicative of pathologic change can be detected if present. Treatment Treatment is of limited value unless infections such as endometritis or other infections of the reproductive tract coexist and can be treated with antibiotics, prosta- glandins, and other specic therapy. Sexual rest is indi- cated for adhesions, and the time required varies in each case. Hemorrhage from the cervix that recurred at each of the rst three postpartum heats following dystocia. Etiology Clinical Signs and Diagnosis Abnormalities of the cervix may be congenital or ac- quired. Congenital cervical malformations and anoma- Cervical abnormalities may be detected or suspected lies may represent individual lesions or be a component during routine rectal examination but are best diag- of multiple congenital anomalies of the reproductive nosed by vaginal speculum examination. A mucopurulent discharge is frequently and seldom lead to clinical signs other than infertility. Injuries to cervical infections are much less common than endo- the cervix commonly follow dystocia and may cause im- metritis or vaginitis, the condition can be missed mediate signs such as hemorrhage or delayed signs of easily unless palpation and speculum examinations are cervical infection, cervical abscesses, or cicatricial brosis performed. Cervicitis Speculum examination usually allows viewing of an also may develop secondary to chronic endometritis or edematous, dark red, and swollen external cervix with vaginitis. Because of the high probability of urine pooling following vaginal or vulvar injuries predis- endometritis or vaginitis associated with the cervical poses to cervicitis. This especially affects the external cer- infection, therapy may need to be directed against the vical rings. This is necessary older cows or cows that have had severe dystocias also because infections limited to the external cervical region predisposes to external cervical infection. Rough use of seldom occur as single lesions and are seldom a cause insemination pipettes, and especially insemination rods of infertility by themselves. Palpation of the cervix may be suggestive ondary to chronic endometritis and cervicitis are the of stenosis but frequently is inconclusive because of usual causes of acquired lesions. Failure to conceive or the great variation in the palpable size and conformation inability to pass insemination pipettes or guns through in normal cervices. In particularly difcult cases, an epidural anesthetic may improve patient com- Treatment fort during the procedure. Usually the slight bend Cervicitis associated with vaginitis or endometritis re- and stiff metal consistency of a Chamber s catheter or quires treatment of the primary problem and the cervix. Woelffer s catheter allow careful and gradual entry Treatment of chronic endometritis has been discussed through the stenosed or narrowed region of cervix. Cultures and antibiotic uid is administered and the catheter with- antibiotic susceptibility testing may provide useful ancil- drawn. The cow can then be cycled with prostaglandin lary data when the condition is chronic. Surprisingly this technique is vaginitis includes therapeutic douching to cleanse the highly successful in most instances and does not neces- caudal reproductive tract and appropriate antibiotic sarily present a problem during the next lactation. Specic treatment for primary cervicitis using tremely scarred cervices that are stenosed or those that antiseptic swabbing of the affected rings (especially if have both stenosis and chronic cervicitis have a very poor these are the external rings and therefore accessible) has prognosis. Cervicitis secondary to endometritis or Parturient Injuries vaginitis usually resolves if the primary condition is cor- rected. If straining becomes persistent, frequent admin- Etiology istration of lidocaine via needle or epidural catheter may The vagina and caudal reproductive tract may suffer be needed to break the straining cycle. These in- Cervical abscesses are treated by sexual rest and sys- sults are much more common in conjunction with rst temic iodide therapy. If drainage into the cervical lumen calvings but can occur secondary to dystocia even in from the abscess is present, cultures may be obtained to multiparous cows. Lacerations, hemorrhage, pressure guide selection of an appropriate systemic antibiotic as necrosis, and other injuries frequently occur during dif- well. Vaginal trauma may be obvi- intervals or the use of 1 oz of organic iodide orally each ous immediately following dystocia when hemorrhage day until iodism occurs. Larger abscesses may normal vaginal-vulvar anatomy also may be apparent as require specic surgical drainage and long-term antibiotic external lacerations in the vulva or perineum. Rebhun reported evidence of vaginal trauma such as necrotic vaginitis is treatment of two cows in the same herd that had cranial most common in rst-calf heifers and tends to cause cervical abscesses probably associated with a newly trained signs 2 to 10 days following calving or dystocia. Following 2 months of rest and iodides, the vaginal hematomas in the pelvic inlet usually are sub- abscesses shrank to small palpable brotic masses, and clinical but manifested as multiple palpable rm masses both cattle later conceived. One of these patients subse- in the pelvic inlet on routine postpartum palpations of quently aborted a 3-month fetus. Perivaginal abscesses are another delayed conse- Acquired cervical stenosis interferes with effective in- quence of vaginal trauma. Because many inseminators merely drop se- The integral relationship between conditions of the men in the cervix rather than the uterine body, the only vagina, vestibule, and vulva allow discussion of these complaint may be repeat service. Fat necrosis and scarring are anticipated consequences of conservative Clinical Signs and Diagnosis therapy, and perivaginal fat necrosis may subsequently Acute clinical signs of hemorrhage, prolapse of perivagi- be palpated per rectum as perivaginal masses similar in nal fat, or lacerations may require specic therapy or consistency to perivaginal hematomas. Perineal and vulvar lacerations occurring during dys- Subacute consequences of caudal reproductive tract birth tocia may be repaired immediately, but periparturient trauma such as necrotic vaginitis-vulvitis cause clinical edema, inammation, and contamination often result signs of tenderness or tenesmus accompanied by a foul in failure of acute repair and make delayed repairs necrotic odor. Perineal lacerations usually require treatment during the rst postparturient represent a problem that may be noticed immediately or week. A fetid odor and vaginal discharge are present and not recognized until routine prebreeding examination. The offensive odor may cause the recognized until routine prebreeding examination. Treatment starts with careful cleansing of the usually are moveable, and often are multiple. Abscesses perineum and vulva followed by gentle manual vaginal tend to be uctuant to rm, rounded, and tense. Regions of muco- diffuse pelvic hematoma occurring from perivaginal sal pressure necrosis are obvious, and opportunistic infec- hemorrhage can be compared with perimetritis because tion with A. Careful douching of the vagina with mild Firm swelling throughout the pelvic inlet prevents mean- disinfectants should be followed by application of oily ingful rectal palpation. Overt anemia may be present in antiseptic or antibiotic ointments that have antimicrobial these cattle, and the condition is differentiated from peri- and lubricant properties to deter side-to-side mucosal metritis by absence of fever coupled with anemia. Fibrinous adhesions of Delayed or chronic consequences of birth trauma in- mucosa to mucosa may need to be gently broken down. Perivaginal hematomas usually are incidental nd- ings during routine physical or reproductive examina- Treatment tions in cows fresh less than 30 days. These lesions are Acute injuries to the caudal reproductive tract may re- most common in rst-calf heifers, do not require specic quire immediate attention when hemorrhage is severe or therapy, and usually resolve by 40 to 60 days postpar- persistent and when lacerations that may have future tum. Rare instances of large perivaginal hematomas or impact on reproduction are present. Severe vaginal pelvic hematomas that result in massive pelvic swelling bleeding occurring immediately after delivery of a calf and blood loss anemia may require blood transfusion to may require isolation and ligation of the bleeding vessel. Retraction of the vulva by sutures, lead to pelvic abscessation, a condition with a grave instruments, or retractors may allow viewing of the site. Perivaginal or pelvic abscesses represent de- Ligatures of absorbable suture material or clamping layed manifestations of vaginal injury, laceration, or ne- with a hemostat that is subsequently removed in 24 to crosis. Affected cows may be asymptomatic or have 48 hours sufces for hemostasis in most cases. Diagnosis is suspected hemorrhage is associated with vaginal or vulvar mucosal on routine rectal palpation and may be conrmed by lacerations, hemostasis and repair of the mucosal defect ultrasonography or aspirates obtained through the vagi- both may be accomplished with absorbable suture ma- nal wall. Prolapse of perivaginal fat may or may not require wall may be surgically drained into the vagina. Dbridement of prolapsed fat and closure drainage usually is curative unless multiple abscesses or of mucosal defects are indicated for large lacerations. When indicated unless perivaginal abscesses are identied and palpation or ultrasound fails to conrm a distinct attach- require drainage. Because Vaginitis such abscesses usually are retroperitoneal, the cow shows no signs of peritonitis, but attempts at drainage are ana- Etiology tomically difcult. Drainage sometimes has been tried Vaginitis may appear as an acute or chronic condition. As through the area lateral to the vulva and anus or using previously discussed, birth trauma is a common cause of laparotomy. Complications and recurrence are com- acute, necrotic, and chronic vaginitis that is either a pri- mon. Conservative therapy likewise has poor success, mary condition or secondary to chronic endometritis but long-term systemic antibiotic therapy, iodide ther- and cervicitis. Necrotic tipped vulva, urovagina, and chronic vaginitis will be vaginitis has a fetid odor that accompanies discharge and discussed in the treatment of vaginitis. Conditions that result from dystocia and alter the normal caudal reproductive tract anatomy predispose to Other Vaginal Injuries vaginitis. Windsucking, perineal lacerations, and urine Etiology pooling are the major primary conditions. Alteration of Although parturient injuries are the most common cause the normal perineal anatomy encourages vaginal con- of vaginal trauma, rare cases of vaginal laceration or irri- tamination. This is true for cattle with tipped vulvas or tation can follow natural breeding, injuries caused by perineal lacerations. Natural breed- air to be trapped in the vagina causes irritation that pro- ing of small heifers to adult bulls occasionally can lead to motes opportunistic infection by organisms normally cranial vaginal perforations or laceration at intromission.
The most common pattern is a diffuse one discount 160 mg malegra fxt plus visa, Complications known also as tylosis (Fig 160mg malegra fxt plus sale. In a few families including antisocial behaviour purchase 160 mg malegra fxt plus with visa, are seen more often these changes have been associated with carcinoma than would be expected by chance. An impairment of the oesophagus, but in most families this is not of delayed hypersensitivity may be the basis for a the case. Bacterial overgrowth is respons- such as salicylic acid and urea can be used in higher ible for the unpleasant smell of some severely affected concentrations on the palms and soles than elsewhere patients. It is most marked around the borders of the heels where painful ssures form and interfere with walking (Fig. Regular paring and the use of keratolytic ointments are often more help- ful than attempts at hormone replacement, and the condition tends to settle over a few years. Presentation Fibromatous and hyperkeratotic areas appear on the backs of many nger joints, usually beginning in late childhood and persisting thereafter. Differential diagnosis Occupational callosities, granuloma annulare and viral warts should be considered. It is not uncommon for normal people to have a few inconspicuous punctate keratoses on their palms, Callosities and corns and it is no longer thought that these relate to inter- nal malignancy, although palmar keratoses caused Both are responses to pressure. Black patients diffuse type of thickening of the keratin layer, which are prone to keratotic papules along their palmar seems to be a protective response to widely applied creases. Callosities are often Keratoderma of the palms and soles may be part occupational; e. They appear where there is A distinctive pattern (keratoderma climactericum) high local pressure, often between bony prominences is sometimes seen in middle-aged women at about the and shoes. Further reading Soft corns arise in the third or fourth toe clefts when the toes are squeezed together by tight shoes; such Dunnill, M. British Journal soles, but sometimes need orthopaedic alteration of of Dermatology 137, 485 490. This theory postulates that the increase in North American white people, uncommon in American keratinocyte proliferation is caused by inammatory black people and almost non-existent in American cell mediators or signalling. It is a chronic non-infectious inammatory skin genesis of psoriasis tend to tag along behind fashions disorder, characterized by well-dened erythematous in cell biology, and this idea is currently in vogue. It can start at any age but is rare under 10 years, and appears Genetics most often between 15 and 40 years. Its course is unpredictable but is usually chronic with exacerbations A child with one affected parent has a 16% chance of and remissions. If non-psoriatic parents have a child with The precise cause of psoriasis is still unknown. However, there is often a genetic predisposition, and In one study, the disorder was concordant in 70% of sometimes an obvious environmental trigger. There are two key abnormalities in a psoriatic These gures are useful for counselling but psoriasis plaque: hyperproliferation of keratinocytes; and an does not usually follow a simple Mendelian pattern inammatory cell inltrate in which neutrophils of inheritance. Each to be categorized as genetically complex, implying a of these abnormalities can induce the other, leading polygenic inheritance. Early inammatory reaction; but it is still not clear which is onset psoriasis shows an obvious hereditary element the primary defect. It is unlikely may also be important for the formation of psoriatic to be coincidental that two of these loci (6p. This large number of genetic linkages suggests that Others think that psoriasis is caused by a genetic psoriasis may in fact be a phenotypic expression of defect of retinoid signalling and that is why it improves several different genetic aberrations, all characterized with retinoid treatment. In this context, there are by well-dened erythematous and scaly plaques, which two families of retinoid receptors in the epidermis: are clinically indistinguishable. Altered epidermal maturation During normal keratinization the prole of keratin Epidermal cell kinetics types in an epidermal cell changes as it moves from the The increased epidermal proliferation of psoriasis basal layer (K5 and K14) towards the surface (K1 and is caused by an excessive number of germinative cells K10; p. K6 and K16 are produced in psoriasis but entering the cell cycle rather than by a decrease in cell their presence is secondary and non-specic, merely a cycle time. This epidermal hyperproliferation accounts for Psoriasis differs from the ichthyoses (p. It is not conned to obvious plaques: similar be an immunological response to as yet unknown but less marked changes occur in the apparently normal antigens. Fibroblasts from psoriatics replicate as a result of their interactions with Langerhans cells more rapidly in vitro and produce more glycosamino- (possibly presenting unmasked retroviral or myco- glycans than do those from non-psoriatics. Hypocalcaemia Bacterial exotoxins produced by Staphylococcus secondary to hypoparathyroidism is a rare precipitat- aureus and certain streptococci can act as superantigens ing cause. This 4 Sunlightaimproves most psoriatics but 10% become appears to be a key mechanism in the pathogenesis of worse. This ts in with the idea that after withdrawal of treatment with systemic steroids psoriasis is a T-cell-driven disease. Scales of psoriasis also contain chemotactic factors and these provoke visible collections of subcorneal neutrophils as seen in pustular psoriasis (p. The rash often clears in a few months but plaque psoriasis may develop The main changes are the following. Lesions are well demarcated and range from a few millimetres to several centimetres in diameter (Fig. The lesions are pink or red with large dry silvery-white polygonal scales (like candle grease). Areas of scaling are inter- spersed with normal skin; their lumpiness is more Flexures easily felt than seen (Fig. Signicant Psoriasis of the submammary, axillary and anogenital hair loss is rare. Usually it clears quickly but there is an increased risk of ordinary psoriasis developing in later life. Localized pustular psoriasis (palmo-plantar pustulosis) This is a recalcitrant, often painful condition which some regard as a separate entity. Generalized pustular psoriasis is a rare but serious condition, with Palms and soles fever and recurrent episodes of pustulation within Palmar psoriasis may be hard to recognize as its lesions areas of erythema. Erythrodermic psoriasis This is also rare and can be sparked off by the irritant Less common patterns effect of tar or dithranol, by a drug eruption or by the withdrawal of potent topical or systemic steroids. Napkin psoriasis The skin becomes universally and uniformly red with A psoriasiform spread outside the napkin (nappy/ variable scaling (Fig. Malaise is accompanied diaper) area may give the rst clue to a psoriatic tend- by shivering and the skin feels hot and uncomfortable. Distal arthritis involves the Differential diagnosis terminal interphalangeal joints of the toes and ngers, especially those with marked nail changes (Fig. Pitting is not seen and nails tend to be crumbly and discoloured at their free edge. The need for this depends both on the patient s own Flexural plaques are less well dened and more perception of his or her disability, and on the doctor s exudative. There may be signs of seborrhoeic eczema objective assessment of how severe the skin disease is. Information the lesions, which are oval rather than round, tend to leaets help to reinforce verbal advice. Scaling is of collarette type and a as well as the patient should keep the disease in per- herald plaque may precede the rash. Lesions are usu- spective, and treatment must never be allowed to be ally conned to the upper trunk. At present there is no cure for psoriasis; all treatments are suppressive and aimed at Secondary syphilis (p. However, spontaneous remissions scaly lesions are brownish and characteristically the will occur in 50% of patients. Oral changes, patchy with chronic stable plaque psoriasis is relatively alopecia, condylomata lata and lymphadenopathy simple and may be safely administered by the family complete the picture. However, systemic treatment for severe psoriasis should be monitored by a dermatologist. No treatment, at present, alters the overall course of the Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (p. Atrophy or poikiloderma may be pre- and depression should be treated on their own merits sent and individual lesions may vary in their thickness. Calcipotriol and Main types of treatment tacacitol are analogues of chlolecalciferol, which do These can be divided into four main categories: local, not cause hypercalcaemia and calciuria when used ultraviolet radiation, systemic and combined. They work by inuencing vitamin D it is better to become familiar with a few remedies receptors in keratinocytes, reducing epidermal pro- than dabble with many. They with psoriasis is an art as well as a science and few also inhibit the synthesis of polyamines (p. It seldom clears plaques of psoriasis completely, but does reduce their scaling and Vitamin D analogues thickness. Local and usually transient irritation may Ultraviolet radiation helps many patients with psoriasis occur with the recommended twice-daily application. Up to 100 g/week calcipotriol may be used but the manufacturer s recommendations should be con- sulted when it is used in children over 6 years old. Our current practice, which may be unnecessary, is still to check the blood calcium and phosphate levels every 6 months, especially if the psoriasis is widespread or the patient has had calcied renal stones in the past. The drug should not be used for longer than a year at a time and is not yet recommended for children. Like the vitamin D analogues, its main side- prescriber to keep the patient under regular clinical effect is irritation. If this occurs, the strength should review is especially important if more than 50 g/week be reduced to 0. The drug should not 1 In limited choice areas such as the face, ears, gen- be used in pregnancy or during lactation. Females of itals and exures where tar and dithranol are seldom childbearing age should use adequate contraception tolerated (mildly potent steroid preparations should during therapy.