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A research program for the standardization buy provera 2.5 mg lowest price, pharmacological and toxicological evaluation of traditional drugs and herbal medicines was started in 1984 and Myanmar Traditional Medicine National Formulary has been compiled for 57 numbers of traditional medicine formulations provera 5 mg discount, in each monograph including formulary order 10mg provera mastercard, therapeutic uses, caution and dosage in Myanmar language. The Ministry of Health plays a pivotal role in the promotion and maintenance of health of the Myanmar people for ensuring their health and longevity. The ministry also encouraged research on traditional medicinal plants with the objectives of obtaining evidence-based traditional medicine drugs and exploring new traditional medicinal plants. Scientists from the Ministries of Health, Science and Technology and Education gather together to conduct research on traditional medicine and traditional plants during the past decades. An attempt has been made to consolidate all available data on traditional medicine research carried out at the Department of Medicine Research (Lower Myanmar) during the past five decades. In such cases, modifications have to be made and new subject headings have been added ie, species of plants as well as their local names. This bibliography will be of great assistance as a handy reference to traditional medicine practitioners and various researchers in the field of Myanmar Traditional Medicine. The action of Desmodium triquetrum (Lauk-thay-ywet) on the development of st Musca domestica. In Burma, Desmodium triquetrum (Lauk-thay-ywet) leaves are used to cover ngapi in the belief that this practice renders the ngapi free of fly larvae. Assuming that the larvae found in ngapi were those of Musca domestica, studies were initially made on the effect of Desmodium triquetrum leaves and extract on (1) eggs of M. Extracts tested had no action on the larve, but the leaf had a lethal effect on the majority of larvae within 24hours. The initial effects produced were a localisation of the larvae to part of the leaf, usually on the under surface, followed by an exudation of fluid. The mechanism by which the leaf produces the changes in the larvae has yet to be elucidated. The relative proportions of different kinds of fly larvae found in Nga-ngapi and Seinsa-ngapi were studied. Four different kinds of fly larvae were found in batches of Nga-ngapi and Seinsa-ngapi tested viz. Activation analysis of arsenic in 'Khun-hnit-par-shaung" Myanmar indigenous medicine. Sources of errors related to gamma attenuation and neutron self-shielding effects were studied. Mass-activity relation for arsenic was determined by gamma counting technique and checked against by both nuclear and chemical methods. Activities of some medicinal plants on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients with septic wound (Ana-pauk wound) attending Traditional Medicine Hospital, Yangon. Three medicinal plants: (Allium sativum-single clove garlic), leaves and seeds of Tama (Azadirachta indica) and Bizat (Eupatorium odoratum) leaves were selected to find out the antibacterial activity on 30 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Wound swabs and pus samples were collected from patients with septic wound attending Traditional Medicine Hospital, Yangon from January to August, 2005. All extracts of three medicinal plants and fresh juice of Bizat leaves showed no antibacterial activity on Stphylococcus aureus. The findings of this study may be a scientific report for further development of a useful phytomedicine from garlic with specific antibacterial activity. The ingredients (24 plants) present in it were selected singly and tested for their antibacterial activities. A total of 35 strains of bacteria (Escherichia coli = 11; Staphylococcus aureus = 3; Salmonella species = 7; Shigella species = 4; Vibrio cholerae = 7 and one species each of Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus morganii) were chosen for testing. Among the 23 plants tested, they were found to be active on one, two or more of the bacteria tested with different patterns. Mu Mu Sein Myint; May Aye Than; Yin Min Htun; Win Win Maw; Aye Myint Swe; San San Myint; Myint Myint Khine; Phyu Phyu Win. In acute toxicity test, it was found that there was no toxic symptom in albino mice at the dose of up to 4gm/kg body weight. In subacute toxicity test, three groups of rats were tested orally once daily for 90 days. Internal organs were dissected out; weighted and histopathological examinations were done. Sub-acute toxicity test showed that there were no changes of body weight and organ weight in all three groups. In histopathological examinations, squamous metaplasia, necrosis and polymorph infiltration were observed at mucosa of small intestine in some high dose treated rats (3gm/kg body weight). There were no significant changes of histopathological examinations in low dose and control groups. Evaluation of the acute and subacute (short-term) toxic effects of a commercially available Lingzhi capsule was carried out. For the subacute toxicity, 18 rats were divided into three groups of 6 rats each (Lingzhi 1g/kg body weight, 0. Gross behaviors of these rats were recorded daily and body weight were recorded once weekly at 3 months, they were sacrificed by dislocation of neck and blood collected for urea, complete picture and liver function tests. Visible pathological changes of vital organs as well as histopathological studies were carried out. Khine Khine Lwin; Mu Mu Sein Myint; May Aye Than; Min Min Myint Thu; Thaung Hla; Khin Tar Yar Myint; Aung Myint; Ei Ei Soe. The present study was done to determine the phytochemical constituents, acute and subacute toxicity of Millingtonia hortensis Linn. Acute toxicity study of the dried leaves powder of this plant was carried out in albino mice by using oral route. In subacute toxicity study the dried leave powder of this plant at the doses of 3g/kg and 5g/kg was administered orally to the albino rats daily for 3 months. Their blood samples were collected and tested for haematological and biochemical parameters. It was found that the dried leaves powder contained alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, tannin, steroids, phenol, saponin, resin, carbohydrate and amino acid. In the acute toxicity study, it was found that the dried leaves powder was not toxic up to the maximum feasible dose of 8g/kg. In the subacute toxicity study, the dried leaves powder showed no significant changes in body weight, hematological, and biochemical (blood urea, liver, function test) parameters when compared with those of the control group. Histopathological studies of the internal organs of the rats showed no pathological changes. The present study was done to determine the phytochemical constituents, acute and sub-acute toxicity test of Butea superba Roxb. Their blood samples were collected and tested for haematological and biochemical parameters. It was found that the powder contained alkaloid, flavonoid, glycoside, phenolic compound, and tannin, starch, reducing sugar, steroide, α-amino acid and carbohydrate. In the sub-acute toxicity study, the dried root powder at the doses of 1g/kg and 2g/kg showed no significant changes in body weights when compared with those of the control group. The average weights of the internal organs of the animals treated with 1g/kg of the powder showed no difference except significantly increase in the average weight of the lungs (p<0. There was no significantly difference in the weights of the internal organs of the rats treated with 2g/kg of the powder when compared with the control except for the increase in relative weights of the testes and epididymus (p<0. Concerning the studies of haematological, there were no significant changes in haematological parameters between the groups of the rats given with 1g/kg and 2g/kg of the dried root powder of this plant and the control group. The weight and histopathological examination of selected organs showed no significant changes. In the present study, the histolopathological studies of the tissue samples taken from selected organs of the rats treated with the powder of this plant and the control group of rats showed no pathological lesions. The tissues of the testes of 9 rats and the epididymus of 5 rats treated with the low dose (1g/kg) of the powder of Butea superba Roxb. The tissues of testes and epididymus of all rats treated with the high dose (2g/kg) of the powder of this plant showed active spermatogenesis. The information from this study can be used to explain the application of this plant which has been used to increase sexuality in men. Acute and sub-acute toxicity studies of Traditional Medicine Formulation number 28 (Thetyinnkalat-hsay) on rat model. Khin Phyu Phyu; Lei Lei Win; Mya Malar; Kyawt Kyawt Khaing; Kyi San; Tin Tin Thein; Thaw Zin; Kyaw Zin Thant. The purpose of this study is to perform standardization and to find the safety profile of Traditional Medicine Formulation Number 28 (Thetyinnkalat-hsay) on laboratory rat model. In sub-acute toxicity study, this drug was tested at there doses of 2g/kg body weight, 1g/kg body weight and 0. The st animals were sacrificed on the 91 day and various blood biochemical parameters, haematological, and histopathological examinations were done. Sub-acute toxicity showed that there was no decrease in body weight of the internal organs such as heart, liver, lung, kidney, spleen, stomach and intestine were found, when compared with the control group. No significant changes in liver and kidney functions tests, and haematological parameters were observed when compared with the control group. Mild congestion of capillaries and blood vessels were observed in heart, lung and liver of some rats. Zaw Myint; Hnin Lwin Tun; Theingi Thwin; Thet Thet Mar; Mie Mie Nwe; Aye Myint Oo; Lwin Zar Maw; Tin Ko Ko Oo; May Thu Kyaw. It included 20 diabetic patients whose fasting plasma glucose concentration exceeded 126mg/dl. Then, the same procedure was done after one week at which glucose load and onion (50g) were administered.

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The rings would occasionally climates provera 5mg line, hardy species of Passeriformes do well in slip over the bowerbird’s neck with fatal results cheap provera 10 mg with amex. Disease Control Disease control in planted aviaries can be challenging because of the dif- ficulties involved in controlling mi- croorganisms and in medicating in- dividual birds discount provera 2.5 mg online. Because it is difficult to eliminate infectious agents once they are introduced into a planted aviary, it is critical that any new birds be quarantined, tested and treated for parasites and infectious diseases prior to introduction. Free-ranging birds should be ex- cluded from aviaries to prevent the transmission of microorganisms. Sparrows, for example, may trans- mit poxvirus, Plasmodium, feather lice, mites and Haemoproteus to ca- naries. Synthetic fibers (par- ticularly yarn) may wrap around a digit, leg or wing causing avascular necrosis distal to the constriction. In some cases, the fibers are grossly visible, while in others, magnification is neces- sary to see and remove the constricting fibers. A 26 or 30 ga needle makes an excellent cutting tool for removing small fibers under magnification (courtesy of Michael Murray). The bird was maintained on an Passeriformes may be granivorous, nectivorous, fruc- all-seed diet in a small enclosure and had no exposure to water for bathing or sunlight. Note the generalized edema, hyperkeratosis, tivorous, insectivorous, omnivorous or carnivorous. Some free-ranging Feather color is dietary-dependent in species with species have specific dietary preferences (Gouldian carotenoid pigmentation. Red factor and new color Finches prefer sorghum) but may adapt to diets pro- canaries have genotypes that require exogenous vided in captivity. Even finches that are considered sources of carotenoids or related compounds to en- omnivorous or carnivorous can be successfully raised able full development of yellow, orange and red pig- on properly balanced vegetable-based diets (Figure ments in feathers. Reduced or absent carotenoids during Recommended dietary levels of vitamins and miner- feather formation produces pale or whitish feathers als developed for poultry are used as a base in small while excess carotenoids will cause a deepening of passerines. Commercial diets that body weight daily in food compared with 10% for contain algae (spirulina) should have sufficient lev- larger parrots. If dietary supplementation is based els of naturally occurring carotenoids to maintain on a percentage of particular ingredients in the diet, proper feather coloration. In the United States, “col- finches may be consuming greater amounts on a per ored” foods generally contain carotene-soaked stale gram body weight basis than larger species. Over- bakery products and should be avoided in favor of dosage of vitamins and minerals may occur, resulting more natural sources of carotenoids. Cardinals may fade in color when fruits, ber- ries or greens that contain canthex- anthin are scarce. Birds that have yellow feathers (honeyeaters) may become pale in captivity in spite of being given ac- cess to grated carrot and other sources of vitamin A precursors, due to the nutrient’s being bound to undigestible cellulose. Pollen, for example, may be a source of utilizable ca- rotenoids such as apocarotenol, a pigment associated with golden-or- ange shades. The cloacal promontory is a) present in the male and cal or arid regions, seasonal b) absent in the female, which has a flatter vent. Most successful breeders of these species females usually have more of a chirp or single-note mimic natural conditions by lowering the caloric, call and are more passive in the courtship role. At the ductus deferens forms a mass of convolutions called beginning of the breeding season, the birds are the seminal glomerulus. During the culmination “flushed,” or encouraged to come into a breeding phase of the breeding cycle, the seminal glomerula condition by increasing the plane of nutrition. Mist- pushes the cloacal wall into a prominent projection, ing some species with water (to mimic rainfall) and the cloacal promontory. This can be observed by blow- providing green, fresh foods and foliage may stimu- ing the feathers on the bird’s vent cranially (Figure late breeding, particularly those species from desert 43. Hens do not develop this projection and have a environments such as the Australian grass finches. In the non-breeding season and with Birds must not become chilled during the misting immature birds, these differences are less obvious. Depending on the species, birds may be Laparoscopy can be used to determine gender in transferred in pairs to smaller breeding enclosures or monomorphic passerine birds, but the small size of left in flights to colony breed. The cost of these In some passerines, there are obvious or subtle mor- procedures tends to limit their application to more phologic differences between the genders. Differences Vasectomy in Finches in singing, courtship or nesting behavior may also Estrilid finches may be vasectomized by making a 3 provide clues as to gender. The incisions are closed with single sutures and the bird placed on antibiotics postoperatively. Self-mutila- involved in an episode of territorial aggression in an overcrowded tion, poor body condition and increased susceptibility enclosure. The bird had bilateral rear limb paresis with some deep to disease can be indirect results of such aggression pain. The finch responded to therapy that included corticosteroids and being placed in a dark, cool (72°F) environment. Aggression is more likely to occur if the birds are overcrowded in small, open genera Neophema (Bourke’s or Scarlet-chested Par- enclosures where less dominant birds have few op- rots) or Polytelis (Princess Parrots) are usually se- portunities to escape from dominant birds. In contrast, sion-related injuries can be particularly pronounced rosellas (except for the Western Rosella) orPsephotus if new birds are introduced into collections where a parrots (Hooded or Blue Bonnet Parrots) are usually social order has already been established. Appropriate measures to prevent combat aggression will vary depending on individual circumstances. Cross-fostering Techniques Suggestive control measures include: prevent overcrowding; the fewer birds, the better Species with long histories of domestication, such as keep stocking densities low Bengalese (Society) Finches, will usually breed freely in captivity without the use of specialized tech- clip the wings or remove particularly aggressive niques. Members of this species are sometimes used individuals as foster parents to incubate and raise other finches. Cross-fostering is escape area practiced to increase the production of a particular provide multiple perches, feeding locations and pair of birds. Many species will breed and lay but nesting sites may require certain foods to raise the young. Many maintain subdued lighting in indoor areas birds will immediately re-lay when eggs are pulled to foster, thereby increasing production. One of the inherent problems in cross-fostering is that it does not enable selection for good parenting Parents that become aggressive toward their chicks ability in the offspring. The problems that gave rise are preparing to lay a second clutch of eggs and the to the need for fostering in the first place are often chicks should be removed. By comparison, using fos- Successfully establishing aviaries containing psittac- ter parents may prevent some infectious diseases ine, passerine and other bird species requires a work- that are transmitted from infected parent to off- ing knowledge of individual behavioral charac- spring. Cross-fostering has also been used as a technique to Finches are an inexpensive experimental animal and enhance breeding populations of endangered species. In an effort to save this bird, eggs are collected from free-ranging Helmeted Breeding Parasitic Species of Passerines Honeyeaters and are incubated in captivity by the closely related Yellow-tufted Honeyeater. This in- Some finch enthusiasts relish the challenge of breed- duces the free-ranging Helmeted Honeyeaters to pro- ing parasitic species (birds that lay their eggs in the duce a second clutch of eggs and increase the annual nests of other species) such as Paradise Whydahs production of chicks from a single pair. Similar tech- (parasitize various species of the Pytilia family) and niques have been used to save other endangered Broad-tailed Whydahs (parasitize Aurora Finches). However, preservation and where the parasitized finch species has first been rehabilitation of suitable natural habitats must also firmly established and is breeding freely. The paral- be a priority if captive breeding and subsequent re- lels between the appearance and behavior of the lease to the wild is to be effective. One of the major disadvantages of fostered birds is that they imprint on the foster parents and may be If male and female whydahs do not originate from the less likely to breed with their own species. Experi- same geographic area, they may not enter breeding mental work in Bengalese and Zebra Finches has condition simultaneously, preventing successful re- shown that development of sexual orientation and production. The male whydah develops a long, flow- adult song patterns occur during a defined period in ing tail during the breeding season. Male finches reared by foster par- ents of a different species or color variety preferen- tially choose females of the foster species as they sexually mature. If only male members of the foster species were available, the cross-fostered males Special Considerations formed homosexual pairs with these birds rather than heterosexual pairs with birds of their own vari- in Managing Passerine ety. The critical sensitive period for sexual orienta- Patients tion from imprinting lasts from about the 15th to the 40th days of life. Acquisition of adult song follows a similar pattern: birds raised by foster parents learn the song of the foster parent, even if this song was Passeriformes are increasingly presented for veteri- audible only some weeks prior to the young bird’s nary evaluation as aviculturists recognize that suc- beginning to sing. Veterinary care in these species is finches have been defined in humans and other ani- frequently directed toward appropriate preventive mal species. For example, adult humans retain ac- husbandry measures and approaching medical prob- cents acquired during childhood even when they lems from a flock perspective. By comparison, children will caught Passeriformes (eg, African finches) ceases, quickly change an original accent and acquire the the cost of acquiring pairs warrants further financial one characteristic to a new location. Birds will gener- ally not move in a dark room and can easily be removed from an enclosure with minimal stress. Once out of the enclosure, the bird can be restrained by placing the head between two fingers so that the body rests in the palm of the hand, or it can be restrained by holding the head gently between the thumb and first finger. Blood Collection Techniques The right jugular vein is generally the best site for collecting blood or giving intravenous fluids. A nail clip, medial metatarsal vein or cutaneous ulnar vein are alternative blood collection sites but they fre- quently provide insufficient sample volumes. A skin prick technique from these sites or from the external thoracic vein (which courses on either side of the rib cage just behind the shoulder) can be used. Treatment Techniques Therapeutics Although the right jugular vein can be used for ad- ministering intravenous fluids, intraosseous catheterization using a 26 ga needle is a practical means of fluid administration in a finch. Hemorrhage may be a problem following intramus- cular injections into the pectoral muscles in small birds. To minimize risk, the injection site should be located in the caudal third of the chest muscles, and a fine gauge needle should be used (25 ga or less).

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They try to find out how disturbances of daily living come about purchase provera 2.5mg without a prescription, and to find ways to assist the people concerned in their efforts to restore daily living 10 mg provera visa. Wade (1) (p 16) describes assessment as the process of de- termining the meaning of the outcome of measurement buy provera 5mg on-line. Measurement is the quan- tification of an observation by comparison with a standard. This meaning could be expressed in terms of diagnosis, prognosis, indica- tion for interventions or effect of interven- tions. In brief: measurement serves assess- ment, and assessment serves clinical deci- sion-making. With the term ‘reliable’ is meant how close suc- cessive measurements fall to each other. The term ‘valid’ indicates how close, on average, the mea- surements represent what they are meant to represent. Does the desirability of an out- come also justify measures to reach this outcome? To put it different- ly, a theoretical framework might help us in the practice of rehabilitation to select relevant variables for measurement, and subsequently make inter- pretations of the measurement outcomes that are relevant for this practice. To that effect, I start with conceptual issues in section 2, such as the meaning of the term ‘rehabili- tation’, the role of adaptation, the nature of justification of rehabilitation measures, and assumptions regarding functioning and individual experi- ence. In section 4 I suggest ways to analyse change in functioning, indi- vidual experience and adaptation that are based on this framework. Consider this example: A polio infection at the age of 6 resulting in irreversible neurological damage left Mr M with deformities of the left leg. In the past, treatment was provided to prevent contractures, but was only partially effective. The hip shows limited extension, with slight over-extension of the knee in standing and walking, and the foot shows fixed equinovarus position. The skin tissue of the lateral side of his foot has changed considerably being exposed to weight bearing. Walking and skin have both changed for the better, but have never been object of in- tervention. Can we differentiate recovery without intervention from the effects of in- terventions? And is it self-evident to reserve the term ‘rehabilitation’ for in- tervention only? I attempt to answer these questions, by exploring the meaning of the term ‘rehabilitation’. Bloom (2) (p 114) summarises the range of con- ceptions as follows: Rehabilitation has been conceived of as what is done to bring about the patient’s recovery, as the process by which the patient recovers, as the goal of services rendered (the recovery of the patient) and as one phase of the treatment given. Assuming that what is done to a patient is intrinsically accompanied by goal and phases, I reduce the number of conceptions to two, namely process and assistance towards that process. Rehabilitation as a process can be associated with getting better, either in the eyes of the patient or in the eyes of the professional or both. Sever- al processes can be distinguished within a person, such as tissue changes, recovery of skills, accepting a loss, using cognitive strategies, and finding again meaningful activities. Insight in such processes by professionals is relevant for estimat- ing prognosis, and prognosis is relevant for deciding on interventions. I take the target group to consist of people with disturbed or lost functioning or the risk thereof, in association with disease, physical trauma, congenital disorder, somatoform disorder and ageing (3) (p 65-68). Rivière (4) gives a definition of rehabilitation (p 2) that contains both connotations: Rehabilitation is both the concept of a disabled or handicapped individual’s opti- mal achievement of his potential for self-realisation and his assistance therein by the community through organised services directed towards that end. The ‘achievement of potential for self-realisation’ reflects the process, and ‘organised services’ reflect assistance towards that process. In the de- scription by Fugl-Meyer and others (5) the conception of rehabilitation as a process is implied in ‘to mobilise the resources’: The aim of rehabilitation [is] to mobilise the resources of individuals with im- pairment(s) so that, by having realistic goals, they may achieve optimal life satis- faction. Rivière (4) (p 72) refers to ‘rehabilitation potential’ and states: The definition of rehabilitation potential. This implies that rehabilitation itself can be considered a process of an individual’s total adjustment. In the medical world, the term ‘getting better’ is usually associated with re- covery of an individual from disease or injury. In rehabilitation the term ‘getting better’ is usually associated with functional recovery. This not necessarily implies repair of tissue or organs but rather a more effective and/or efficient use of capacities, i. But this distinction between medical, functional and psychological is somewhat artificial. Adaptation is conceived of as the individual’s response to changes both inside and outside the body (6) (p 6). This conception implies that the individual is considered an ‘open system’ in interaction with its environment (7) (p 15). The term ‘open sys- tem’ implies a body of theory that explains the concept of adaptation. Kidd (8) (p 57), in explaining ‘return of control’, brings together the concept of adaptation and the concept of damage, when he states:. Once it has reached maturity it does not become static but continues to change in response to the environment and its own induced activity, particularly after damage. For ex- ample heart muscle, skeletal muscle, bones, ligaments, or blood vessels adapt to what is ‘requested’ from them. Their function changes, mediated by changes in structure, in response to the forces and strains applied to them on the one hand, and according to their intrinsic characteristics on the other. And changes in neuromuscular or psyschoneurophysiological systems are as- sociated with learning. Learning can designate a largely unconscious process, but it can also be a deliberate attempt to change one’s repertoire of behaviour. Different levels Description of adaptation Intrinsic recovery: Repair of tissue structure and of potential tissue function, after (cells and tissues) damage. Intrinsic adaptation: Change in function of tissue, organ or system of organs based (tissues, organs on intrinsic characteristics of the tissues, organs or system & system of organs) of organs, in response to changes in the internal environment Implicit learning A usually automatic and unconscious process of reinforcement (organism) of behaviour of the organism based on intrinsic characteristics of the organism, in response to changes in the external environment Explicit learning A usually voluntary and conscious process of change of behaviour (person) of the person based on characteristics of that person, in response to changes in the external environment, in order to change oneself or the environment In the example of Mr M, intrinsic recovery applies to the repair of tis- sues in the nervous system after his disease. Intrinsic adaptation applies to the process of change in the nervous sys- tem and to the process of change in the skin of the foot. Explicit learn- ing applies to, for example, his way of deciding how to earn a living. That makes adaptation a core concept in clinical decision-making in the field of rehabilitation. But people may have very different ideas about the desired outcome of rehabilitation services (3). In a pre-arranged discussion between Fugl- Meyer from Sweden and Hai from Vietnam, Fugl-Meyer stated that the aim of rehabilitation is to mobilise the resources of individuals so that they may achieve optimal life satisfaction (10). Hai defended that the aim of rehabilitation for adults is to create income, and for children to receive schooling (11). Or could there be one justification in the sense of a unifying concept, within which two differ- ent desired outcomes (two aims) would make sense? I argue that the two different ultimate aims of rehabilitation can be reconciled with the concept of health as described by Whitbeck (12) (p 617). She states: Health is the capacity for a high level of integrated psychophysiological function- ing, which enables the agent to act or respond to situations in a way that promotes the agent’s projects and goals (and that promotes the availability of a wide range of re- sponses in the future). The psychophysiological capacity to act or respond can be equated with adaptation potential. This sense of wholeness of a person implies … the ability to engage in distinctively human activities. To assess people’s health, one must therefore take into account their abilities to engage in such activities. These abilities are based not only on the people’s biological capacities such as the function of a system of or- gans, organs or cells (12) (p 616). They are also based on whether such abilities and capacities are exercised in ways that serve the interests of the person concerned. In other words, for assessing a person’s abilities to en- gage in human activities, one needs insight in not only recovery of tissue and adaptation of tissue and organs, but also in learning capacities and in processes such as making choices. Rehabilitation as a process reflects a person’s effort to regain this capac- ity for integrated psychophysiological functioning. If this effort is successful, health might be regained (health in Whitbeck’s interpretation). To achieve health in this sense could therefore be considered a justification for rehabilitation as assistance. This view implies that, in the rehabilitation practice, analysis of not only functioning but also adaptation is relevant (13). In section 3, I propose an operationalisation of these concepts, and in sec- tion 4 I illustrate how this operationalisation can be used for explaining change in functioning, individual experience and adaptation. Restoration of function has been contrasted with the medical mod- el, which has the aim of alleviating disease and injury (Granger 1984). Even though function is a fundamental concept in rehabilitation, it is a remarkably elusive term. When referring to physical, emotional, or social functioning, it includes most of life’s activities. This subject in its turn could specify the nature of ‘functioning’ if this subject is a system with an intrinsic way of functioning. Therefore, in the subsections below, I attempt to specify functioning in terms of interaction, subject and purpose, in terms of sys- tems and hierarchy, and in terms of individual experience and adaptation. It is interaction by a specified subject with its environment, geared towards a particular purpose. Yet function and functioning are considered a concrete thing in the field of rehabilitation.

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Database/ retrieval system on the Internet title with government agency or other national body as publisher cheap 10mg provera fast delivery,” “27 buy provera 10mg with amex. Database/ retrieval system on the Internet title with month/day included in date of publication purchase provera 10 mg on-line,” “31. Database/retrieval system on the Internet title with upper/ lowercase letters and symbols” for consistency. Chapters 24B: Part of a Citation Rules Corrected “date known” to “date unknown” in “Locating Database on the with Examples the date of publication” and “Locating the date of Internet publication if there is no standard title page” Chapter 24B: Parts of Citation Rules Removed an example from “6. Part of a database on the Databases on the with Examples Internet with a date of publication separate from the date of Internet the database as a whole” Chapter 24C: Citation Rules Added examples to “2. Standard contribution to a database Contributions to with Examples on the Internet with a separate date for the item,” “8. Databases on the Contribution to a database on the Internet with extent Internet provided by the database,” and “11. Contribution to a database on the Internet with a note” Chapter 24C: Citation Rules Corrected example for “9. Contribution to a database on Contributions to with Examples the Internet with extent calculated” Databases on the Internet Chapter 25A: Citation Rules Added examples to “5. Homepage with supplemental note included” Chapter 25B: Parts of Citation Rules Corrected example for “No date of publication or copyright Web Sites with Examples can be found” in “Specifc Rules for Date of Publication” Table continues on next page... Chapter 25B: Parts of Citation Rules Corrected placement of semicolon in rule for “Both a date Web Sites with Examples of update/revision and a date of citation” in “Specifc Rules for Date of Citation” Chapter 25B: Parts of Citation Rules Corrected example in “8. Part of a Web site with date(s) of Web Sites with Examples update/revision” Chapter 25B: Parts of Citation Rules Added examples to “7. Part of a Web site with a date of Web Sites with Examples publication separate from the date of the Web site” and “11. Part of a Web site with location (pagination) estimated as page numbers” Chapter 26C: Blogs Citation Rules Corrected “date known” to “date unknown” in “No with Examples beginning date is provided” and “Locating the date of publication” Chapter 26D: Wikis Citation Rules Corrected “date known” to “date unknown” in “Locating the with Examples date of publication” and “No date of creation is provided” Appendix B: Additional Revised introduction and updated all of the resources in the Sources for Journal Title “Source List” Abbreviations Appendix F: Notes for Revised “2. Change Log for September 15, 2011 Chapter/Appendix Section Updated Update/Correction Chapter 1A: Journal Citation Rules Minor changes for consistency to “Names in non-roman Articles with Examples alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew) or character- based languages (Chinese, Japanese, Korean)” in “Specifc Rules for Authors,” and “Discontinuous page numbers” in “Specifc Rules for Location (Pagination)” Chapter 1A: Journal Examples of Modifed citation and added citation to “75. Other Individual Titles on the Internet Chapter 22A: Entire Examples of Added citation to “39. Journal article on the Internet on the Internet Citations updated/revised afer publication,” “42. Standard citation to an open serial Databases/Retrieval Citations database on the Internet,” “11. Database/retrieval system on Systems on the Internet the Internet title with subtitle,” “18. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with month/day included in date of publication. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with date obtained from earliest material in it. Standard part of a database on the Databases on the Citations Internet without a name or number/letter” and “4. Part of a Internet database on the Internet with title containing special scripts/characters” Chapter 24C: Examples of Added citations to “9. Contribution to a database on the Contributions to Citations Internet with extent calculated” Databases on the Internet Chapter 25A: Examples of Added citations to “6. It is available from the “All Chapters” link under the “Download” section on every page of the Web site. Update for December 2009 Te Content Updates Appendix was added to Citing Medicine. Chapter 2C: Parts of Books Examples of Added notes to the citation examples in “21. Other on the Internet Examples unnamed parts of books on the Internet” in “Specifc Rules for Name and Number/Letter. Journal article on Articles on the Internet Citations the Internet with many authors (give all). Standard contribution to Databases on the Internet Citations to a database on the Internet with a separate date for the item. For Location Added information about unique identifers appearing (Pagination or in notes to the rule and included examples of unique Notes) identifers in the citation examples in “10. Change Log for January 14, 2009 Chapter/Appendix Section Updated Update/Correction Table continues on next page... Chapter 8: Newspaper Citation Rules with Updated rules regarding the Internet in “General Articles Examples Rules for Type of Medium. Book on the and Other Individual Titles Citations Internet with an organization as author having on the Internet subsidiary division. Chapter 23A: Journal Articles Example Citations Updated citation example with location/pagination on the Internet information for “36. Journal article on the Internet with location/extent expressed as an article number. Databases/Retrieval Systems Citations Database/retrieval system on the Internet with on the Internet supplemental note included. Part of a database on Database/Retrieval system on Citations the Internet with a date of update/revision. Citations Contribution to a blog on the Internet by someone other than the blog owner. Chapter 1A: Journal Citation Rules with Added rule and citation examples to “Other types of Articles Examples material to include in notes” in “Specifc Rules for Notes. Standard paper at Meetings presented with a separate name for the conference;” “2. Journal article on the Articles on the Internet Citations Internet with optional article type” and “42. Databases on the Internet Chapter 26C: Blogs Sample Citation Added citation example and information about citing and Introduction parts of a blog. Chapter 26C: Blogs Citation Rules with Added links to citation examples to “Author/Editor for Examples Blogs” for “29. Abbreviations Appendix F: Notes for For Article Title Corrected citation example in “For Article Title. The College became soon the most important cultural center of the whole country, where a great number of writers, scientists and politicians received their education. In the 18th century the schools of Law and Theology were founded and although no separate School of Medicine existed, physicians were also trained in the College. The present day Debrecen is also famous for its schools and higher educational establishments. The University was officially inaugurated on October 23, 1918 and at that time consisted of four faculties: Arts, Science, Theology and Medicine. The Faculty of Medicine became an independent University Medical School under the supervision of the Ministry of Health in 1951. In 2000 the formerly independent universities of Debrecen formed the University of Debrecen, therefore today the Faculty of Medicine is part of the University of Debrecen. It has 22 departments of basic sciences and 25 clinical departments specializing in various fields e. Our hospitals serve as city hospitals for Debrecen therefore students may also obtain their clinical training here. The curriculum described in this Bulletin provides a firm background for a future physician. Please take your studies seriously, and enjoy the process of becoming a medical doctor. In the past two decades both medical science and health care have entered a new era: the medical science of the 21st century. Molecular medicine is opening up and new possibilities are available for the diagnosis, prevention, prediction and treatment of the diseases. One can witness such a progress in medical sciences that has never been seen before. Modern attitudes in health care should be enforced in practice, including therapeutical approaches that consider the explanation and possible prevention of diseases, and attempt to comprehend and take the human personality into consideration. These approaches demand the application of the most modern techniques in all fields of the medical education. All curricula of the University of Debrecen wish to meet the challenges of modern times and they embody some very basic values. They are comprehensive; they take into consideration the whole human personality (body and soul) in its natural and social surroundings; and they are based upon the best European humanistic traditions. With respect to education, both students and teachers are inspired to acquire higher levels of professionalism, precision, and problem solving skills, upon which the foundations of specialist training and independent medical practice can be built. This approach enables the assimilation of new scientific developments, facilitating further education and the continuous expansion of knowledge. The interplay of these factors ensures the ability to understand and handle the changing demands of health care. With respect to research, the faculty members continuously acquire, internalize and subsume new knowledge, especially concerning the genesis, possible prevention and treatment of diseases. Moreover, new information aimed at improving, preserving and restoring the health of the society is also absorbed. The University of Debrecen is already internationally recognized in the fields of both basic and clinical research, and the clinicians and scientists of the Center are determined to preserve this achievement.

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